The Health Belief Model (HBM) is just a psychological version that tries to explain and predict health behaviours. This is achieved by emphasizing the attitudes and beliefs of most individuals. The HBM was first made in the 1950s by social psychologists Hochbaum, Rosenstock and also Kegels working from the U.S. Public Health Services. The version was created in reaction to this collapse of a free tuberculosis (TB) health screening program. Since that time, the HBM was accommodated to explore a variety of long- and – short term health behaviors, including sexual risk behaviors as well as also the transmission of HIV/AIDS.
Core Assumptions and Statements
The HBM relies on the understanding that a Individual will take a health-related action (i.e., use condoms) if this individual:
- Believes that a adverse health condition (i.e., HIV) can be avoided,
- comes with a positive anticipation that by carrying a advocated action, he can avoid a detrimental health illness (i.e., using stimulants will probably soon be effective in preventing HIV), and
- considers he can successfully have a advocated health action (i.e., he/she could use condoms comfortably and with confidence).
The HBM has been spelled out in terms of four constructs symbolizing the perceived hazard and net benefits: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and sensed barriers. These notions were suggested as bookkeeping for people’s “willingness to do something.” An extra concept, cues to act, would trigger that readiness and excite overt behaviour. A new addition to the HBM is the idea of selfefficacy, or a person’s confidence in the capacity to successfully carry out an action. This concept was added by Rosenstock yet others in 1988 to help the HBM better fit the challenges of changing habitual sexual behaviors, such as being transient, smoking, or overeating.
Scope and Application
The Health Belief Model has been applied to a broad array of health behaviors and field populations. Three broad subjects can be identified (Conner & Norman, 1996): 1)) Preventive health behaviors, including health-promoting (e.g. diet, exercise) and also health-risk (e.g. smoking) behaviours as well as vaccination and contraceptive clinics. Two) Sick job behaviors, which refer to compliance with recommended medical regimens, usually after professional identification of disease. 3) Clinic usage, including physician visits for a variety of factors.